Birth Date: May 12, 1932

Education Union College, Schenectady, New York, September

Experience 1950-June 1954, B.S. Sigma Xi, Fuller Chemistry Prize

New York State Medical Scholarship.

Albany Medical College, September 1954-June 1958, M.D. Alpha Omega Alpha.

Intern, U.S. Public Health Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, July 1958-July 1959.

U.S. Public Health Service Residency in Public Health. Assigned to Monroe County Health Department, Rochester, New York, July 1959-August 1960.

Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, September 1960-June 1961, M.P.H.

Senior Resident in Epidemiology. Epidemiology Residency Program, New York State Department of Health, June 1961-1962.

Development Consultant. New York State Department of Health, 1963-1967.

Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Albany Medical College, July 1964-1967.

Diplomate, American Board of Preventive Medicine, June 1966.

Associate Professor, University of Hawaii School of Public Health and Medical School, 1967-1968.

Travel Fellowship, IARC 1971.

Section Head, Epidemiology Section, Washington

State Department of Health, 1968-1986.

Travel Fellowship, International Cancer Research Technology Transfer, 1981.

Washington State Public Health Association Annual Award, 1986.

Chronic Disease Epidemiologist, Washington State Department of Health, 1968-1988.

Clinical Associate Professor, University of Washington School of Public Health, 1968--.

Section Head, Chronic Disease Epidemiology Section, Washington State Department of Health, 1988-May 1992.

Adjunct Professor, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1989--.

Robert Carl Strom Foundation Humanitarian Award, 1990.

Member of Bioelectromagnetics Society, 1984--.

Self-employed, June 1992.

Elected to Fellowship, Collegium Ramazzini, October 1994.

Ramazzini Award. 1997

Special Congenital defects, occupational and

Interests: environmental illness, methods in occupational studies, EMF epidemiology.


P = peer reviewed article

L = letter

M = monograph

P Rathbun, Margaret L.; Broad, Robert H.; Font, Wallace; Milham, Samuel; Ames, Wendell R. Mass Immunization with Sabin and Cox Oral Poliomyelitis Vaccines. N.Y.S.J. of Med., Vol. 62, No. 11, pp. 1767-1775, June 1962.

P Gittlesohn, A. and Milham, S. The Declining Incidence of Central Nervous System Anomalies in New York State. British J. of Prev. and Soc. Med., Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 153-158, July 1962.

P Milham, Samuel. Increased Incidence of Anencephalus and Spina Bifida in Siblings of Affected Cases. Science, Vol. 138, No. 3540, pp. 593-594, November 1962.

P Milham, Samuel. Congenital Malformation Surveillance System Based on Vital Records. Public Health Reports, Vol. 78, No. 5, pp. 448-452, May 1963.

P Milham, Samuel. Underreporting of Incidence of Cleft Lip and Palate. American J. Dis. of Child., Vol. 106, pp. 185-188, August 1963.

P Milham, Samuel. Malformation Surveillance in New York State. N.Y.S.J. of Med., Vol. 63, No. 19, pp. 2823-2824, October 1963.

P Milham, Samuel. Random Distribution of Affected Birth Ranks in Anecephalic and Spina Bifida Sibships with Two Affected Cases. Nature, Vol. 200, No. 4905, pp. 480-481, November 1963.

L Milham, Samuel. Leukemia Clusters. Lancet, Vol. 2, p. 1122, 1963.

P Gittlesohn, A.M. and Milham, S. Statistical Study of Twins. American J. of Public Health, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 286-294, February 1964.

L Milham, Samuel. Pituitary Gonadotrophin and Dizygotic Twinning. Lancet, Vol. 2, p. 566, September 1964.

L Milham, Samuel. Smoking and Pregnancy. Lancet, Vol. 1, p. 879, 1964.

P Gittlesohn, A.M. and Milham, S. Observations of Twinning in New York State. British J. of Prev. and Soc. Med., Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 8-17, January 1965.

P Milham, S. and Gittlesohn, A.M. Parental Age and Malformations. Human Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 13-22, February 1965.

P Milham, Samuel. Leukemia in Husbands and Wives. Science, Vol. 148, No. 3666, pp. 98-100, April 1965.

P Gittlesohn, A.m. and Milham, S. Vital Record Incidence of Congenital Malformations in New York State. Public Health Services Publication No. 1163, pp. 305-314, 1965.

P Milham, Samuel. Symmetrical Conjoined Twins: An Analysis of the Birth Records of Twenty-two Sets. J. of Pediatrics, Vol. 69, pp. 643-647, October 1966.

L Milham, Samuel. Nasal Adenocarcinoma in Woodworkers. Lancet. P. 623, March 1967.

P Milham, Samuel and Hesser, Jana E. Hodgkin's Disease in Woodworkers. Lancet, pp. 136-1173, July 1967.

P Magenis, R.E., Hecht, F. and Milham S. Trisomy 13 (Dl) Syndrome: Studies of Parental Age, Sex Ratio and Survival. J. of Pediatrics, Vol. 73, pp. 222-228, August 1968.

L Milham, Samuel. Alcoholic Cancers and Wood. Lancet, P. 1059, May 1970.

P Milham, Samuel. Leukemia and Multiple Myeloma in Farmers. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 94, pp. 307-310, 1971.

P Milham, Samuel. Experience with Malformation Surveillance. Monitoring, Birth Defects and Environment - The Problem of Surveillance, p. 137, October 1971

L Milham, Samuel and Elledge, William. Maternal Methimazole and Congenital Defects in Children. Teratology, Vol 5, p. 125, February 1972.

P Emanuel, Irvin; Milham, Samuel; Sever, Lowell E. and Thuline, Horace C. Accelerated Aging in Young Mothers of Children with Down's Syndrome. Lancet, pp. 361-363, August 19, 1972.

P Milham, Samuel, and Strong, Terrance. Human Arsenic Exposure in Relation to a Copper Smelter. Environmental Research, Vol. 7, pp. 176-182, April 1974.

L Milham, Samuel. Some Comments on This Article: Endocrine Dysfunction and Anencephaly and Spina Bifida -- An Epidemiologic Hypothesis. American Journal of Epidemiology; 99 (1), January 1974.

L Milham, Samuel. Hodgkin's Disease as an Occupational Disease of School Teachers. New Eng. J. or Med., Vol. 290, Nol 23, p. 1329, 1974.

M Milham, Samuel. A Study of the Mortality Experience of the AFL-CIO United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 1969-1970. DHEW Publication No. (NIOSH) 74-129, July 1974.

P Petersen, Gerald R. and Milham, Samuel. Brief Communication: Hodgkin's Disease Mortality and Occupational Exposure to Wood. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 53:957-958, 1974.

P Milham, Samuel. Methods in Occupational Mortality Studies. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 17:9, pp. 581-585, September 1975.

P Milham, Samuel. Neoplasia in the Wood and Pulp Industry. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 271, pp. 294-300, 1976.

P Milham, Samuel. Cancer Mortality Patterns Associated with Exposure to Metals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 271, pp. 243-249, 1976.

M Milham, Samuel. Occupational Mortality in Washington State, 1950-1971. DHEW, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication No. (NIOSH) 76-175-A.

M Petersen, Gerald R. and Milham, Samuel. Occupational Morality in The State of California 1959-61. DHEW, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health publication No. (NIOSH) 80-104.

P Milham, Samuel. Studies of Morbidity Near a Copper Smelter. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 19, pp. 131-132, 1977.

M Milham, Samuel. Mortality Experience of the AFL-CIO Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, 1969-1970 and 1972-1973. DHEW Publication No. (NIOSH) 78-152, January 1978.

P Milham, Samuel. Arsenic Contamination Near a Copper Smelter, presented at 37th Annual American Medical Association Congress on Occupational Health. DHEW Publication No. (NIOSH) 78-169.

P Milham, Samuel. Experience in Using Death Certificate Occupational Information, presented at the 17th National Meeting of the Public Health Conference of Records and Statistics. DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 79-1214, August 1979.

P Milham, Samuel. Cancer in Aluminum Plant Reduction Workers. JOM, Vol. 21, No. 7, July 1979.

L Milham, Samuel. Race, Season, Gonadotrophin and Sex Ratio. Lancet, Vol. 2, pp. 1032-1033, November 8, 1980.

P Milham, Samuel. Proportion of Cancer Due to Occupation in Washington State. Banbury Report 9: Quantification of Occupational Cancer. 1981 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, pp. 513-522, 1981.

L Milham, Samuel. Lung Cancer in Butchers. Lancet, No. 8273. Vol. 1, Saturday, p. 690, March 20, 1982.

L Milham, Samuel. Herbicides, Occupation, and Cancer. Lancet. No. 8287. Vol 1, Saturday, June 26, 1982.

L Milham, Samuel. Mortality from Leukemia in Workers Exposed to Electrical and Magnetic Fields. The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 307, No. 4, p. 249, July 22, 1982.

L Helgerson, Steve, and Milham, Samuel. Irrigation-Pipe-Associated Electrocution Deaths - Washington. Morbidity and Mortality Report, Vol. 32, No. 13, April 8, 1983.

P Beare, John A., and Milham, Samuel. Vital Records as Indicators of Chronic Disease (Public Health and Preventive Medicine). West J. of Med. 139:234-235, August 1983.

M Milham, Samuel. Occupational Mortality in Washington State, 1950-1979. DHHS, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication No. (NIOSH) 83-116, October 1983.

P Milham, Samuel. Cancer in Washington State Woodworkers. Carcinogens and Mutagens in the Environment, Volume V: The Workplace, pp. 117-123. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida 1985.

P Milham, Samuel, and Demers, Raymond Y. Mortality in Pulp and Paper Workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine, Vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 844-846, November 1984.

L Milham, Samuel. Quality of Death Certificate Occupation Information. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 74, No. 2, February 1985.

P Milham, Samuel. Improving Occupational Standardized Proportionate Mortality Ratio Analysis by Social Class Stratification. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 121, No. 3, 1985.

P Milham, Samuel. Mortality in Workers Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 62, pp. 297-300, 1985.

L Milham, Samuel. Silent Keys: Leukemia Mortality in Amateur Radio Operators. Lancet, p. 812, April 6, 1985.

L Milham, Samuel. Scalp Defects in Infants of Mothers Treated for Hyperthyroidism with Methimazole or Carbimazole During Pregnancy. Teratology, 32:321, 1985.

L Helgerson, Steven, and Milham, Samuel. Farm Workers Electrocuted When Irrigation Pipes Contact Power Lines. Public Health Reports, Vol. 100, No. 3, May-June 1985.

L Paulozzi, L.J., and Milham, Samuel. Seasonality of Omphalocele in Washington State. Teratology 1986; 33-133-4.

P Milham, Samuel. Increased Mortality in Amateur Radio Operators Due to Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Malignancies. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 127, No. 1, January 1988.

L Milham, Samuel. Re: "Increased Mortality in Amateur Radio Operators" The author replies. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, 1384-5, 1988.

P Milham, Samuel. Toxic Wastes and Health: How Real is the Problem? Journal of Alaska Medical Association, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 95-98, May-June 1988.

P Milham, Samuel. Using Multiple Cause of Death Coding in Occupational Mortality Studies. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 14, pp. 341-344, 1988.

P Milham, Samuel. Mortality by License Class in Amateur Radio Operators. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, No. 5, 1175-6, Nov. 1988.

L Milham, Samuel, Jr. Childhood Leukemia Mortality Before 1970 Among Populations Near Two US Nuclear Installations, Lancet, p. 1443, June 24, 1989.

P Milham, Samuel, Jr. Can the Birth Certificate Yield Clues to Parental Occupational Exposures? American Journal of Industrial Medicine 16:235-237, 1989.

L Milham, Samuel, Jr. Increased Male Births Associated with Placenta Praevia. Lancet, p. 863, Saturday, October 7, 1989.

P Davis, Robert L. and Milham, Samuel, Jr. Altered Immune Status in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 18, pp. 79-85, 1990.

P Goldbaum, Gary; Daling, Janet; and Milham, Samuel Jr. Risk Factors for Gastroschisis. Teratology 42: p. 397-403, November 1990.

P Milham, Samuel, Jr. and Davis, Robert L. Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Mother's Occupation, J. of Occupational Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 468-473, April 1991

P Houck, Peter and Milham, Samuel, Jr. Quality of Death Certificate Occupation Data for a Cohort of Aluminum Industry Workers, J. of Occupational Medicine, pp. 173-175, February 1992.

P Houck, Peter, Nebel, Diane and Milham, Samuel, Jr. Organic Solvent Encephalopathy: an Old Hazard Revisited. Am. J. of Industrial Medicine 22: pp. 199-115, 1992.

P Milham, Samuel. Unusual Sex Ratio of Births to Carbon Setter Fathers. Am.J. of Industrial Medicine, 23: 829-831, 1993

M Milham, Samuel. Occupational Mortality in Washington State 1950-1989 DHHS, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-133, March 1997

P Milham, Samuel. Increased Incidence of Cancer in Office Workers Exposed to Strong Magnetic Fields. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 30:702-704, 1996

P Milham S. Carcinogenicity of Elecromagnetic Fields Eur. J. Oncol., v.3, n 2: 93-100, 1998

P Milham, Samuel. Epidemiological Studies of the Carcinogenic Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Brain. Eur. J. Oncol. v 3, n 2: 115-116, 1998

P Milham, S., Hatfield, J.B., Tell, R. Magnetic Fields from Steel-Belted Radial Tires: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies.Bioelectromagnetics 20:440-445, 1999

P Milham, S., Ossiander, E.M. Historical Evidence that Residential Electrification Caused the Emergence of the Childhood Leukemia Peak. Medical Hypothesis, 56(3):290-295, 2001

P Milham S., A cluster of male breast cancer in office workers. Am J. Ind Med. 2004 Jul;46(1)86-87.

L Milham S., Re: “Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumour risk” Am. J. Epidemiol. 2005 Sept. 15;162(6):599.

L Milham S. Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the interphone case-control study in five north European countries. Br. J. Cancer 2006 May 8;94(9);1351.

P Ossiander EM, Milham S., A computer system for coding occupation. Am.J. Ind.Med. 2006 Oct 49 (10): 854-657.

P Milham s., Ossiander EM. Electric typewriter exposure and increased female breast cancer mortality in typists. Med. Hypotheses 2007;62(2):450-1.

L Milham , S., Re;”mobile phone use and risk of parotid gland tumour”

Am. J. Epidemiol. 2007 Jan 15;165 (2):231

P Milham S, Ossiander EM. Low proportion of male births and low birthweight in sons of flour mill workers. Am. J.Ind. Med 2008 51:157-158.

P Milham S.,Morgan LL. A new electromagnetic exposure metric: high frequency voltage transients associated with increased cancer incidence in teachers in a California school. Am J. Ind Med. 2008 51(8):579-86

L Milham S.,Morgan LL. A new electromagnetic exposure metric: high frequency voltage transients associated with increased cancer incidence in teachers in a California school. Am J. Ind Med. 2008 51(8):579-86 Authors reply AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE 2009 52:352

L Meningioma and mobile phone use
Sam Milham
International Journal of Epidemiology 2009; doi: 10.1093/ije/dyp196

P Milham S.  Most cancer in firefighters is due to radio-frequency radiation exposure not inhaled carcinogens. 2009 Med Hypotheses. Nov;73(5):788-9.

P Milham S.  Historical evidence that electrification caused the 20th century epidemic of "diseases of civilization" 2009 Medical Hypotheses 74 (2010) 337–345.